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Glossary (A-E)
A
Adjusted Gross Income (AGI)
An interim calculation in the computation of income tax liability. It is computed by subtracting certain allowable adjustments from gross income.
Administrator
A person appointed by the court to settle an estate when there is no will.
After-Tax Return
The return from an investment after the effects of taxes have been taken into account.
Aggressive Growth Fund
A mutual fund whose primary investment objective is substantial capital gains. The return and principal value of mutual funds fluctuate with changes in market conditions. Shares, when sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Investments seeking to achieve higher returns also involve a higher degree of risk. Mutual funds are sold by prospectus. Please consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses carefully before investing. The prospectus, which contains this and other information about the investment company, can be obtained from your financial professional. Be sure to read the prospectus carefully before deciding whether to invest.
Alternative Minimum Tax
A method of calculating income tax that disallows certain deductions, credits, and exclusions. This was intended to ensure that individuals, trusts, and estates that benefit from tax preferences do not escape all federal income tax liability. People must calculate their taxes both ways and pay the greater of the two.
Annuity
An insurance-based contract that provides future payments at regular intervals in exchange for current premiums. Annuity contracts are usually purchased from banks, credit unions, brokerage firms, or insurance companies. Any guarantees are contingent on the claims-paying ability of the issuing company.
Asset
Anything owned that has monetary value.
Asset Allocation
The process of repositioning assets in a portfolio to maximize potential return for a particular level of risk. This process is usually done using the historical performance of the asset classes within sophisticated mathematical models. Asset allocation does not guarantee against loss; it is a method used to help manage investment risk.
Asset Class
A category of investments with similar characteristics.
Audit
The examination of the accounting and financial documents of a firm by an objective professional. The audit is done to determine the records' accuracy, consistency, and conformity to legal and accounting principles.
B
Balanced Mutual Fund
A mutual fund whose objective is a balance of stocks and bonds. Balanced funds tend to be less volatile than stock-only funds. The return and principal value of mutual funds fluctuate with changes in market conditions. Shares, when sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Mutual funds are sold by prospectus. Please consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses carefully before investing. The prospectus, which contains this and other information about the investment company, can be obtained from your financial professional. Be sure to read the prospectus carefully before deciding whether to invest.
Bear Market
When the stock market appears to be declining overall, it is said to be a bear market.
Beneficiary
A person named in a life insurance policy, annuity, will, trust, or other agreement to receive a financial benefit upon the death of the owner. A beneficiary can be an individual, company, organization, and so on.
Blue Chip Stock
The common stock of a company with a long history of profitability and consistent dividend payments.
Bond
A bond is evidence of a debt in which the issuer promises to pay the bondholders a specified amount of interest and to repay the principal at maturity. Bonds are usually issued in multiples of $1,000.
Book Value
The net value of a company's assets, less its liabilities and the liquidation price of its preferred issues. The net asset value divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding equals the book value per share, which may be higher or lower than the stock's market value.
Bull Market
When the stock market appears to be advancing overall, it is said to be a bull market.
Buy-Sell Agreement
A buy-sell agreement is an arrangement between two or more parties that obligates one party to buy the business and another party to sell the business upon the death, disability, or retirement of one of the owners.
C
Capital Gain or Loss
The difference between the sales price and the purchase price of a capital asset. When that difference is positive, the difference is referred to as a capital gain. When the difference is negative, it is a capital loss.
Cash Alternatives
Short-term investments, such as U.S. Treasury securities, certificates of deposit, and money market fund shares, that can be readily converted into cash.
Cash Surrender Value
The amount that an insurance policyholder is entitled to receive when he or she discontinues coverage. Policyholders are usually able to borrow against the surrender value of a policy from the insurance company. Policy loans that are not repaid will reduce the policy's death benefit and cash value by the amount of any outstanding loan balance plus interest.
CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® Practitioner
A credential granted by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, Inc. (Denver, CO) to individuals who complete a comprehensive curriculum in financial planning and ethics. CFP®, CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER®and federally registered CFP (with flame logo)® are certification marks owned by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards. These marks are awarded to individuals who successfully complete the CFP Board's initial and ongoing certification.
Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
A professional license granted by a state board of accountancy to an individual who has passed the Uniform CPA Examination (administered by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) and has fulfilled that state's educational and professional experience requirements for certification.
Charitable Lead Trust
A trust established for the benefit of a charitable organization. A grantor who places money, securities, property, and other assets in a charitable remainder trust can designate an income beneficiary, even if it is the grantor herself, to receive payment of a specified amount (at least annually) from the trust. You may also qualify for an income tax deduction on the estimated present value of the remainder interest that will eventually go to charity.
Charitable Remainder Trust
A trust established for the benefit of a charitable organization. A grantor who places money, securities, property, and other assets in a charitable remainder trust can designate an income beneficiary, even if it is the grantor herself, to receive payment of a specified amount (at least annually) from the trust. You may also qualify for an income tax deduction on the estimated present value of the remainder interest that will eventually go to charity.
Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC)
A professional financial planning designation granted by The American College (Bryn Mawr, PA) to individuals who complete a comprehensive curriculum in financial planning. Prerequisites include passing a series of written examinations, meeting specified experience requirements and maintaining ethical standards. The curriculum encompasses wealth accumulation, risk management, income taxation, planning for retirement needs, investments, estate and succession planning.
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
A professional designation granted by The American College to individuals who complete a comprehensive curriculum focused primarily on risk management. Prerequisites include passing a series of written examinations, meeting specified experience requirements, and maintaining ethical standards. The curriculum encompasses insurance and financial planning, income taxation, individual life insurance, life insurance law, estate and succession planning, and planning for business owners and professionals.
COBRA
The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act is a federal law requiring employers with more than 20 employees to offer terminated or retired employees the opportunity to continue their health insurance coverage for 18 months at the employee's expense. Coverage may be extended to the employee's dependents for 36 months in the case of divorce or death of the employee.
Coinsurance or Co-Payment
The amount an insured person must pay for a covered medical and/or dental expense if his or her insurance doesn't provide 100 percent coverage.
Commodities
The generic term for goods such as grains, foodstuffs, livestock, oils, and metals which are traded on national exchanges. These exchanges deal in both "spot" trading (for current delivery) and "futures" trading (for delivery in future months).
Common Stock
A unit of ownership in a corporation. Common stockholders participate in the corporation's profits or losses by receiving dividends and by capital gains or losses in the stock's share price.
Community Property
State laws vary, but generally all property acquired during a marriage -- excluding property one spouse receives from a will, inheritance, or gift -- is considered community property, and each partner is entitled to one half. This includes debt accumulated. There are currently nine community property states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Compound Interest
Interest that is computed on the principal and on the accrued interest. Compound interest may be computed continuously, daily, monthly, quarterly, semiannually, or annually.
Consumer Price Index
The U.S. Department of Labor's main indicator of inflation. The Consumer Price Index is calculated each month from the cost of some 400 retail items in urban areas throughout the United States.
D
Deduction
An amount that can be subtracted from gross income, from a gross estate, or from a gift, thereby lowering the amount on which tax is assessed.
Defined Benefit Plan
A qualified retirement plan under which a retiring employee will receive a guaranteed retirement fund, usually payable in installments. Annual contributions may be made to the plan by the employer at the level needed to fund the benefit. The annual contributions are limited to a specified amount, indexed to inflation.
Defined Contribution Plan
A retirement plan under which the annual contributions made by the employer or employee are generally stated as a fixed percentage of the employee's compensation or company profits. The amount of retirement benefits is not guaranteed; rather, it depends upon the investment performance of the employee's account.
Diversification
Investing in different companies, industries, or asset classes in an attempt to limit overall risk. Of course, diversification does not guarantee against loss; it is a method used to help manage investment risk. Diversification may also mean the participation of a large corporation in a wide range of business activities.
Dividend
A pro rata portion of earnings usually distributed in cash by a corporation to its stockholders. In preferred stock, dividends are usually fixed; with common shares, dividends may vary with the fortunes of the company.
Dollar Cost Averaging
A system of investing in which the investor buys a fixed dollar amount of securities at regular intervals. The investor thus buys more shares when the price is low and fewer shares when the price rises, and the average cost per share is lower than the average price per share. Dollar cost averaging does not ensure a profit or prevent a loss. Such plans involve continuous investments in securities regardless of fluctuating prices. You should consider your financial ability to continue making purchases during periods of low and high price levels. However, this can be an effective way for investors to accumulate shares to help meet long-term goals.
E
Efficient Frontier
A statistical result from the analysis of the risk and return for a given set of assets that indicates the balance of assets that may, under certain assumptions, achieve the best return for a given level of risk.
Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plan
A tax-favored retirement plan that is sponsored by an employer. Among the more common employer-sponsored retirement plans are 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, simplified employee pension plans, and profit-sharing plans.
Enrolled Agent (EA)
An enrolled agent is a person who has passed the appropriate examination in order to represent taxpayers before the Internal Revenue Service. Enrolled agents, like attorneys and certified public accountants, are unrestricted as to which taxpayers they can represent, what types of tax matters they can handle, and which IRS offices they can represent clients before.
Equity
The value of a person's ownership in real property or securities; the market value of a property or business, less all claims and liens against it.
ERISA
The Employee Retirement Income Security Act is a federal law covering all aspects of employee retirement plans. If employers provide plans, they must be adequately funded and provide for vesting, survivor's rights, and disclosures.
ESOP (employee stock ownership plan)
A defined contribution retirement plan in which company contributions must be invested primarily in qualifying employer securities.
Estate Conservation
Activities coordinated to provide for the orderly and cost-effective distribution of an individual's assets at the time of his or her death. Estate conservation often includes the use of wills and trusts.
Estate Tax
Upon the death of a decedent, federal and state governments impose taxes on the value of the estate left to others (with limitations).
Executive Bonus Plan
The employer pays for a benefit that is owned by the executive. The bonus could take the form of cash, automobiles, life insurance, or other items of value to the executive.
Executor
A person named by the probate courts or the will to carry out the directions and requests of the decedent.


 
 
 

IMPORTANT DISCLOSURES

Registered Representative offering securities and advisory services through Independent Financial Group, LLC (IFG), a registered broker-dealer and investment advisor. Member FINRA/SIPC. LeBaron Financial Group, Inc. and IFG are unaffiliated entities. OSJ Branch: 12671 High Bluff Dr. Suite 200 San Diego, CA 92130. Licensed to sell securities in AR, CA, CO, KY, OH, TX, UT, WA.
CA Insurance License#0628256

Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. does not provide investment, tax, or legal advice. The information presented here is not specific to any individual's personal circumstances.

To the extent that this material concerns tax matters, it is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used, by a taxpayer for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed by law. Each taxpayer should seek independent advice from a tax professional based on his or her individual circumstances.

These materials are provided for general information and educational purposes based upon publicly available information from sources believed to be reliable—we cannot assure the accuracy or completeness of these materials. The information in these materials may change at any time and without notice.

 


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